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Goals and Objectives (Proposed; Revision of 3/14/03)


Library and information services are essentially about providing users with access to resources for information in accordance with their needs and requests.  A model of the process is shown on the last page. There are five components:

1.       Selecting resources

2.       Organizing resources

3.       Disseminating resources

4.       Facilitating learning

5.       Managing library and information services

The American Library Association’s statement on Library and Information Studies and Human Resource Utilization as adopted by the Council of the American Library Association, on January 23, 2002 (available online at ) defines the concept “librarian” as follows:

The title "Librarian" carries with it the connotation of "professional" in the sense that professional tasks are those which require a special background and education on the basis of which library needs are identified, problems are analyzed, goals are set, and original and creative solutions are formulated for them, integrating theory into practice, and planning, organizing, communicating, and administering successful programs of service to users of the library's materials and services.

According to the ALA, paraprofessional categories of library workers include LIS assistants (for whom two years of college level study or an Associate’s degree is considered appropriate) and LIS associates (for whom a Bachelor’s degree is recommended).

An LIS Assistant is a person with certain specifically library-related skills—in preliminary bibliographic searching for example, or utilization of certain equipment or technology—the performance of whose duties seldom requires a background in general education.

The [LIS] Associate categories assume a need for an educational background like that represented by a bachelor's degree from an accredited four-year institution of higher education (or foreign equivalent).

UMA’s Library and Information Services Program provides relevant courses to assist students in acquiring basic knowledge and developing skills necessary for them to properly understand and to successfully work as support personnel in libraries and related organizations. The program will assist students in the application of library skills so they can become effective and well-informed members of the library team.

The Certificate Program is intended for persons wishing to take only library science courses with no expectation of earning a degree in L&IS. The purpose of the Associate of Science in L&IS is to prepare individuals for immediate entry into positions that support library and information service professionals and to upgrade skills of staff who are presently working in school, public, academic and special libraries and other information intensive positions and organizations. The Bachelor of Science in L&IS provides students the opportunity to develop specialized technological skills and to increase their creative and critical thinking abilities. Students completing the BS in L&IS will be prepared to enter the field of library and information technology as specialized paraprofessionals, able to work independently in many settings.

The programs are designed to provide students with paraprofessional skills essential to supporting the effective functioning of libraries and other information intensive organizations and to prepare them for a career as a Library and Information Assistant/Technician or Library Associate.

The Associate of Science degree in Library and Information Services prepares individuals for immediate entry into positions which support library and information service professionals; to upgrade skills of staff who are presently working in school, public, academic, and special libraries and in other information intensive positions and organizations.  The program will prepare students for a career as a library and information technology assistant. Students will examine policies and issues related to libraries, library careers, and the library profession.

The Bachelor of Science degree in Library and Information Services provides students an opportunity to develop technological skills, attain a broad liberal arts education, and increase creative and critical thinking abilities for employment in libraries and information centers. It is the natural extension of the Associate of Science in L&IS offered by UMA. Students with the Bachelor's degree will be prepared to enter the field of library and information technology as specialized paraprofessionals, able to work independently in many employment settings. Library technicians and aides currently employed in school and public libraries can advance themselves professionally and fiscally by pursuing the B.S. in L&IS. For further information, see From College to Career in Library and Information Technology.


The Library and Information Services Program aims to

A. Provide students with the competencies necessary to perform effectively, both in a supporting role and independently, in the following areas:

1.       Selecting and acquiring resources

2.       Organizing resources

3.       Disseminating resources

4.       Facilitating learning

5.       Managing library and information services

B.     To enable students attain a broad liberal arts education and to prepare them to continue their education in a variety of fields.


Specifically, graduates with a degree in Library and Information Services will be expected to have:

A.     Demonstrated in coursework and the practicum competencies appropriate to a library assistant’s position, including, but not limited to:

1.       Selecting and acquiring resources:

a.                               Reads and evaluates reviews

b.                               Evaluates resources for possible acquisition

c.                               Recommends materials, both print and electronic, for selection

d.                               Continually reviews collection, evaluating old or infrequently used materials

e.                               Participates in materials selection for one or more subject fields

f.                                May select books for special collections

g.                               Assists in revising listings

h.                               Assists in adding copies of volumes to update collections and file systems.

i.                                 Prepares lists of resources, both print and electronic for likely selection and acquisition

j.                                 Searches resource lists both in print and online and identifies and describes publications

k.                               Reviews resources in print, electronic or multimedia formats for acquisitions that meet the needs of the library or information service and its patrons

2.       Organizing resources:

a.                               Performs basic copy cataloging tasks.

b.                               Monitors and suggests corrections to the library catalog and/or website

c.                               Inputs and revises bibliographic and holdings records to international and local database

d.                               Revises catalog copy

e.                               Inputs original catalog data, provided by Cataloging Department, into international database

f.                                Performs basic original cataloging.

g.                               Develops search strategies and performs bibliographic searches (e.g., checks local and international sources to verify cataloging form, availability, etc.)

h.                               Retrieves and transfers (i.e., downloads) bibliographic records from international to local database.

3.       Disseminating resources:

a.                               Performs routine circulation tasks required to serve public

b.                               Assists patrons with inquiries regarding availability and status of items in collections

c.                               Refers circulation problems to senior staff members

d.                               Plans and prepares displays, bulletin boards, bibliographies, and webliographies

e.                               Assists patrons on the selection, organization and interpretation of resources, both print and electronic

f.                                Answers basic reference questions in person, by telephone or through electronic communication

g.                               Carries out the research required to answer basic reference questions, including searching bibliographic databases and search engines

h.                               Responds to inquiries concerning status of requests (e.g., interlibrary loan, document delivery, reserves, etc.).

i.                                 Assists library patrons in locating information and information resources by searching basic reference sources in print and electronic formats

j.                                 Searches online sources to verify and locate materials working from internal or external interlibrary loan requests;  may contact patrons to verify requests and clarify information

k.                               Provides individualized reference, referral and advisory services in person, by telephone and through electronic communication to patrons of all ages and abilities

l.                                 Responds to all inquiries, explaining library policies and procedures to patrons

m.                             Refers complex questions and problems to senior staff members

4.       Facilitating learning:

a.                               Conducts basic education and training of patrons and patron groups

b.                               Provides instruction and assistance in effective research methods using print, electronic and on-line resources.

c.                               Instructs patrons in interpreting search results and evaluating informational content.

d.                               Participates in literacy programs

5.       Managing library and information services:

a.                               Participates in administration of the library or information service

b.                               Plans and presents programs for children and adults

c.                               Attends professional meetings, pertinent workshops and serves on system-wide and professional committees

d.                               Participates in planning and providing services to special populations.

e.                               Compiles statistics and reports as requested

f.                                Orders supplies needed for daily operation of unit.

g.                               Maintains commercial and in-house collection preservation operations.

h.                               Supervises Senior Library Assistants, Library Assistants and other classified, student, or temporary employees engaged in routine library activities

i.                                 Assists in planning and directing the work activities of employees; assigning and monitoring work duties and responsibilities; establishing and modifying work methods, schedules, and priorities.

j.                                 Assists in interviewing job applicants and conducting performance evaluations of classified employees.

k.                               Assists in recommending formal personnel actions (e.g., hiring, termination, promotion, discipline, layoff/recall) for assigned employees and initiating appropriate action to implement recommendations.

l.                                 Assists in communicating and enforcing policies and procedures; resolving problems; addressing employee concerns and complaints and adjusting grievances.

m.                             Assists in ensuring appropriate training of staff; identifying training needs; developing and implementing training activities.

B.     Attained through courses and electives the necessary academic prerequisites for continuation to an upper level degree program.

model of library and information services

First Step for Individual Instructors in Assessing Program Outcomes

 The following example of an instructor’s assessment of how they are addressing the Program’s Outcomes would be accompanied by a syllabus for the department to discuss and come to agreement that this course (regardless of instructor) should and does meet Program Outcomes as described.  Those discussions should also include revisions and refinements that are found to be needed in the Program/Department Student Outcomes.  These two documents along with those of others would be the basis for drafting a “Course Charter” or generic syllabus for the course. 

Another aspect of the assessment process needs to include the establishing of a mechanism(s) for ensuring that like courses have like outcomes.  Possible solutions for this might include:

  • Common questions embedded in exams and jointly assessed/reviewed;
  • Common exams and jointly assessed/reviewed;
  • Common problems assigned and jointly assessed/reviewed;
  • A common final exam, paper, or assignment that serves as an exit exam and is jointly assessed/reviewed or;
  • Less formal, but documented processes could suffice.


Josh Nadel

ART 112, 2-D Design

Program Student Outcomes

1. The graduate will be prepared for entry into post baccalaureate degree programs in visual art.

Through lectures, demonstrations, focused assignments, the use of examples (both in class and gallery/museum/library/research work), one-on-one interactions with the instructor, and small and large group critiques students are introduced to the fundamental principles of design that will utilized and reinforced throughout their undergraduate career, and lay the foundation for entry into a post-baccalaureate art program.  Assessment of the students’ knowledge, skills, and understanding are accomplished through: daily one-on-one interactions with all students while weekly assignments are being worked on in class; weekly critiques of assignments, where the students hear criticism from the instructor and classmates, and must justify their efforts; individual written comments and grades on all assignments; and weekly questions and discussions about new assignments.

This outcome should at least be broken into subsets of theory and skills.  My teaching of ART 112 is strong on theory (90%+) and weak on skills (10%-).

2. The graduate will possess a strong foundation and understanding of the elements and principles of art/design and will gain an appreciation of major art movements and artists of the past and present.

As noted above in Outcome #1, I’ve addressed the first half of this outcome.  I do little to promote the “appreciation of major art movements and artists of the past and present.”  What I do in this area is a by-product of the primary objective, learning the principles of design and how to apply them.  Through examples, and their utilization of the principle(s) being introduced, students gain an appreciation of selected aspects of selected works.  Students do need to demonstrate the analytic abilities to dissect a work into the abstract theories and principles being worked with in the course.  This fact helps set the stage for students to see beyond subject matter and appreciate works of different periods, styles, format, and subject for their underpinning of design.  Assessment of a student’s ability to analyze works of art occurs in one-on-one discussion and critiques.

3. The graduate will have developed strong technical competencies in at least two studio disciplines.

It will be difficult for a student to achieve this without the foundations set forth in ART 112.  ART 112, however, does not develop strong technical competencies in a studio discipline.

4. The graduate will have the ability to exhibit professionally.

ART 112 does not directly address this outcome, but it does introduce the student to the risks and rewards of openly displaying work and hearing the criticisms of the peers and instructor.  Weekly critiques are the activity that initiates this exposure.

5. The graduate will be an effective spokesperson and advocate for art both within the various art disciplines and within the community.

As noted throughout the Outcomes, students are exposed weekly to critiques.  During critiques each student will need to defend and explain his/her own work as well as articulate criticisms of one’s peers.  Through the lectures and one-on-one interactions, students are exposed to the jargon of art, and are expected to utilize it during critiques and one-on-one interactions with the instructor.

6. The graduate will gain an awareness of the creative potential of the new technologies such as computer imaging.

This is italicized because I never did it, but since the introduction of the Mac lab, I understand this is the norm for ART 112….ergo, the following is made-up! 

25% of all assignments require the use of Photoshop software run of Mac computers.  Students are encouraged to utilize this technology when appropriate to the concept they are working with.  Assessment is achieved through in-class and homework assignments, as well via the critiques and one-on-one discussions relative to those assignments.

7. The graduate will be exposed to a wide range of intellectual diversity.

American Heritage College Dictionary, 1997:

Intellect  1.a. The ability to learn and reason; the capacity for knowledge and understanding.  b. The ability to think abstractly or profoundly.

Intellectual  1.a. Of or relating to the intellect. b. Rational rather than emotional.

I wonder about this Outcome, or at least the way it is phrased.  Shouldn’t it read, “…a diverse range of intellectual perspectives,” or “…a wide range of intellectual perspectives?”  Even with that change it sounds more like a means to achieve an outcome, rather than an outcome itself.  Should the outcome be: The graduate will understand, appreciate, and (if need be) tolerate the diverse opinions and perspectives of others.  They will further be capable of engaging in meaningful, productive, and respectful discourse about those differences.

I will proceed with my response to this outcome predicated on my revision.

Art is conceived and perceived initially by and with one’s emotions.  One of the fundamental goals of ART 112 is to have the student be able to step back and deal intellectually with artwork, both one’s own and that of the peers.  My responsibility is to lay down principles and theories in ART 112 by which one can construct or deconstruct/analyze art.  The ability to step back, look, absorb, analyze, permute, synthesize, and analyze is promoted in lecturers, one-on-one interactions, and critiques.  It is assessed in the two latter situations, one-on-one interactions and critiques.